Reference

Structure

  • [] (array access)

    The array access operator is used to specify a location within an array

  • = (assign)

    Assigns a value to a variable

  • catch

    The catch keyword is used with try to handle exceptions

  • class

    Keyword used to indicate the declaration of a class

  • , (comma)

    Separates parameters in function calls and elements during assignment

  • // (comment)

    Explanatory notes embedded within the code

  • {} (curly braces)

    Define the beginning and end of functions blocks and statement blocks such as the for and if structures

  • /** */ (doc comment)

    Explanatory notes embedded within the code

  • . (dot)

    Provides access to an object's methods and data

  • draw()

    Called directly after setup() and continuously executes the lines of code contained inside its block until the program is stopped or noLoop() is called

  • exit()

    Quits/stops/exits the program

  • extends

    Allows a new class to inherit the methods and data fields (variables and constants) from an existing class

  • false

    Reserved word representing the logical value "false"

  • final

    Keyword used to state that a value, class, or method can't be changed

  • implements

    Implements an interface or group of interfaces

  • import

    The keyword import is used to load a library into a Processing sketch

  • loop()

    Causes Processing to continuously execute the code within draw()

  • /* */ (multiline comment)

    Explanatory notes embedded within the code

  • new

    Creates a "new" object

  • noLoop()

    Stops Processing from continuously executing the code within draw()

  • null

    Special value used to signify the target is not a valid data element

  • () (parentheses)

    Grouping and containing expressions and parameters

  • popStyle()

    Saves the current style settings and popStyle() restores the prior settings

  • pop()

    The pop() function restores the previous drawing style settings and transformations after push() has changed them

  • private

    This keyword is used to disallow other classes access to the fields and methods within a class

  • public

    Keyword used to provide other classes access the fields and methods within a class

  • pushStyle()

    Saves the current style settings and popStyle() restores the prior settings

  • push()

    The push() function saves the current drawing style settings and transformations, while pop() restores these settings

  • redraw()

    Executes the code within draw() one time

  • return

    Keyword used to indicate the value to return from a function

  • ; (semicolon)

    A statement terminator which separates elements of the program

  • setLocation()

    The setLocation() function defines the position of the Processing sketch in relation to the upper-left corner of the computer screen

  • setResizable()

    By default, Processing sketches can't be resized

  • setTitle()

    The setTitle() function defines the title to appear at the top of the sketch window

  • setup()

    The setup() function is called once when the program starts

  • static

    Keyword used to define a variable as a "class variable" and a method as a "class method

  • super

    Keyword used to reference the superclass of a subclass

  • this

    Refers to the current object (i

  • thread()

    Launch a new thread and call the specified function from that new thread

  • true

    Reserved word representing the logical value "true"

  • try

    The try keyword is used with catch to handle exceptions

  • void

    Keyword used to indicate that a function returns no value

Environment

  • cursor()

    Sets the cursor to a predefined symbol, an image, or makes it visible if already hidden

  • delay()

    The delay() function causes the program to halt for a specified time

  • displayDensity()

    Returns "2" if the screen is high-density and "1" if not

  • displayHeight

    Variable that stores the height of the computer screen

  • displayWidth

    Variable that stores the width of the computer screen

  • focused

    Confirms if a Processing program is "focused"

  • frameCount

    The system variable that contains the number of frames displayed since the program started

  • frameRate

    The system variable that contains the approximate frame rate of the software as it executes

  • frameRate()

    Specifies the number of frames to be displayed every second

  • fullScreen()

    Opens a sketch using the full size of the computer's display

  • height

    System variable which stores the height of the display window

  • noCursor()

    Hides the cursor from view

  • noSmooth()

    Draws all geometry and fonts with jagged (aliased) edges and images with hard edges between the pixels when enlarged rather than interpolating pixels

  • pixelDensity()

    It makes it possible for Processing to render using all of the pixels on high resolutions screens

  • pixelHeight

    The actual pixel height when using high resolution display

  • pixelWidth

    The actual pixel width when using high resolution display

  • settings()

    Used when absolutely necessary to define the parameters to size() with a variable

  • size()

    Defines the dimension of the display window in units of pixels

  • smooth()

    Draws all geometry with smooth (anti-aliased) edges

  • width

    System variable which stores the width of the display window

Data

Primitive

  • boolean

    Datatype for the Boolean values true and false

  • byte

    Datatype for bytes, 8 bits of information storing numerical values from 127 to -128

  • char

    Datatype for characters, typographic symbols such as A, d, and $

  • color

    Datatype for storing color values

  • double

    Datatype for floating-point numbers larger than those that can be stored in a float

  • float

    Data type for floating-point numbers, e

  • int

    Datatype for integers, numbers without a decimal point

  • long

    Datatype for large integers

Composite

  • Array

    An array is a list of data

  • ArrayList

    An ArrayList stores a variable number of objects

  • FloatDict

    A simple table class to use a String as a lookup for a float value

  • FloatList

    Helper class for a list of floats

  • HashMap

    A HashMap stores a collection of objects, each referenced by a key

  • IntDict

    A simple class to use a String as a lookup for an int value

  • IntList

    Helper class for a list of ints

  • JSONArray

    A JSONArray is an ordered sequence of values

  • JSONObject

    A JSONObject is an unordered collection of name/value pairs

  • Object

    Objects are instances of classes

  • String

    A string is a sequence of characters

  • StringDict

    A simple class to use a String as a lookup for an String value

  • StringList

    Helper class for a list of Strings

  • Table

    Generic class for handling tabular data, typically from a CSV, TSV, or other sort of spreadsheet file

  • TableRow

    Represents a single row of data values, stored in columns, from a Table

  • XML

    This is the base class used for the Processing XML library, representing a single node of an XML tree

Conversion

  • binary()

    Converts an int, byte, char, or color to a String containing the equivalent binary notation

  • boolean()

    Converts an int or String to its boolean representation

  • byte()

    Converts any value of a primitive data type (boolean, byte, char, color, double, float, int, or long) to its byte representation

  • char()

    Converts any value of a primitive data type (boolean, byte, char, color, double, float, int, or long) to its numeric character representation

  • float()

    Converts an int or String to its floating point representation

  • hex()

    Converts a byte, char, int, or color to a String containing the equivalent hexadecimal notation

  • int()

    Converts any value of a primitive data type (boolean, byte, char, color, float, int, or long) or String to its integer representation

  • str()

    Converts a value of a primitive data type (boolean, byte, char, int, or float) to its String representation

  • unbinary()

    Converts a String representation of a binary number to its equivalent integer value

  • unhex()

    Converts a String representation of a hexadecimal number to its equivalent integer value

String Functions

  • join()

    Combines an array of Strings into one String, each separated by the character(s) used for the separator parameter

  • matchAll()

    This function is used to apply a regular expression to a piece of text

  • match()

    The function is used to apply a regular expression to a piece of text, and return matching groups (elements found inside parentheses) as a String array

  • nf()

    Utility function for formatting numbers into strings

  • nfc()

    Utility function for formatting numbers into strings and placing appropriate commas to mark units of 1000

  • nfp()

    Utility function for formatting numbers into strings

  • nfs()

    Utility function for formatting numbers into strings

  • splitTokens()

    The splitTokens() function splits a String at one or many character "tokens"

  • split()

    The split() function breaks a string into pieces using a character or string as the divider

  • trim()

    Removes whitespace characters from the beginning and end of a String

Array Functions

  • append()

    Expands an array by one element and adds data to the new position

  • arrayCopy()

    Copies an array (or part of an array) to another array

  • concat()

    Concatenates two arrays

  • expand()

    Increases the size of an array

  • reverse()

    Reverses the order of an array

  • shorten()

    Decreases an array by one element and returns the shortened array

  • sort()

    Sorts an array of numbers from smallest to largest and puts an array of words in alphabetical order

  • splice()

    Inserts a value or array of values into an existing array

  • subset()

    Extracts an array of elements from an existing array

Control

Relational Operators

Iteration

  • for

    Controls a sequence of repetitions

  • while

    Controls a sequence of repetitions

Conditionals

  • break

    Ends the execution of a structure such as switch, for, or while and jumps to the next statement after

  • case

    Denotes the different names to be evaluated with the parameter in the switch structure

  • ?: (conditional)

    A shortcut for writing an if and else structure

  • continue

    When run inside of a for or while, it skips the remainder of the block and starts the next iteration

  • default

    Keyword for defining the default condition of a switch

  • else

    Extends the if structure allowing the program to choose between two or more blocks of code

  • if

    Allows the program to make a decision about which code to execute

  • switch

    Works like an if else structure, but switch is more convenient when you need to select between three or more alternatives

Logical Operators

  • && (logical AND)

    Compares two expressions and returns true only if both evaluate to true

  • ! (logical NOT)

    Inverts the Boolean value of an expression

  • || (logical OR)

    Compares two expressions and returns true if one or both evaluate to true

Shape

  • PShape

    Datatype for storing shapes

  • createShape()

    The createShape() function is used to define a new shape

  • loadShape()

    Loads geometry into a variable of type PShape

Curves

Attributes

  • ellipseMode()

    The origin of the ellipse is modified by the ellipseMode() function

  • rectMode()

    Modifies the location from which rectangles draw

  • strokeCap()

    Sets the style for rendering line endings

  • strokeJoin()

    Sets the style of the joints which connect line segments

  • strokeWeight()

    Sets the width of the stroke used for lines, points, and the border around shapes

Vertex

  • beginContour()

    Begins recording vertices for the shape

  • beginShape()

    Using the beginShape() and endShape() functions allow creating more complex forms

  • bezierVertex()

    Specifies vertex coordinates for Bezier curves

  • curveVertex()

    Specifies vertex coordinates for curves

  • endContour()

    Stops recording vertices for the shape

  • endShape()

    the companion to beginShape() and may only be called after beginShape()

  • quadraticVertex()

    Specifies vertex coordinates for quadratic Bezier curves

  • vertex()

    All shapes are constructed by connecting a series of vertices

Loading & Displaying

  • shapeMode()

    Modifies the location from which shapes draw

  • shape()

    Displays shapes to the screen

2d Primitives

  • arc()

    Draws an arc in the display window

  • circle()

    Draws a circle to the screen

  • ellipse()

    Draws an ellipse (oval) in the display window

  • line()

    Draws a line (a direct path between two points) to the screen

  • point()

    Draws a point, a coordinate in space at the dimension of one pixel

  • quad()

    A quad is a quadrilateral, a four sided polygon

  • rect()

    Draws a rectangle to the screen

  • square()

    Draws a square to the screen

  • triangle()

    A triangle is a plane created by connecting three points

3d Primitives

  • box()

    A box is an extruded rectangle

  • sphereDetail()

    Controls the detail used to render a sphere by adjusting the number of vertices of the sphere mesh

  • sphere()

    A sphere is a hollow ball made from tessellated triangles

Color

Setting

  • background()

    Sets the color used for the background of the Processing window

  • clear()

    Clears the pixels within a buffer

  • colorMode()

    Changes the way Processing interprets color data

  • fill()

    Sets the color used to fill shapes

  • noFill()

    Disables filling geometry

  • noStroke()

    Disables drawing the stroke (outline)

  • stroke()

    Sets the color used to draw lines and borders around shapes

Creating & Reading

  • alpha()

    Extracts the alpha value from a color

  • blue()

    Extracts the blue value from a color, scaled to match current colorMode()

  • brightness()

    Extracts the brightness value from a color

  • color()

    Creates colors for storing in variables of the color datatype

  • green()

    Extracts the green value from a color, scaled to match current colorMode()

  • hue()

    Extracts the hue value from a color

  • lerpColor()

    Calculates a color or colors between two colors at a specific increment

  • red()

    Extracts the red value from a color, scaled to match current colorMode()

  • saturation()

    Extracts the saturation value from a color

Image

  • PImage

    Datatype for storing images

  • createImage()

    Creates a new PImage (the datatype for storing images)

Loading & Displaying

  • imageMode()

    Modifies the location from which images draw

  • image()

    Displays images to the screen

  • loadImage()

    Loads an image into a variable of type PImage

  • noTint()

    Removes the current fill value for displaying images and reverts to displaying images with their original hues

  • requestImage()

    Loads images on a separate thread so that your sketch does not freeze while images load during setup()

  • tint()

    Sets the fill value for displaying images

Textures

  • textureMode()

    Sets the coordinate space for texture mapping

  • textureWrap()

    Defines if textures repeat or draw once within a texture map

  • texture()

    Sets a texture to be applied to vertex points

Pixels

  • blend()

    Copies a pixel or rectangle of pixels using different blending modes

  • copy()

    Copies the entire image

  • filter()

    Converts the image to grayscale or black and white

  • loadPixels()

    Loads the pixel data for the display window into the pixels[] array

  • mask()

    Masks part of an image with another image as an alpha channel

  • pixels[]

    Array containing the values for all the pixels in the display window

  • get()

    Reads the color of any pixel or grabs a rectangle of pixels

  • set()

    Writes a color to any pixel or writes an image into another

  • updatePixels()

    Updates the display window with the data in the pixels[] array

Typography

  • PFont

    Grayscale bitmap font class used by Processing

Loading & Displaying

  • createFont()

    Dynamically converts a font to the format used by Processing

  • loadFont()

    Loads a font into a variable of type PFont

  • textFont()

    Sets the current font that will be drawn with the text() function

  • text()

    Draws text to the screen

Attributes

  • textAlign()

    Sets the current alignment for drawing text

  • textLeading()

    Sets the spacing between lines of text in units of pixels

  • textMode()

    Sets the way text draws to the screen

  • textSize()

    Sets the current font size

  • textWidth()

    Calculates and returns the width of any character or text string

Metrics

  • textAscent()

    Returns ascent of the current font at its current size

  • textDescent()

    Returns descent of the current font at its current size

Transform

  • applyMatrix()

    Multiplies the current matrix by the one specified through the parameters

  • popMatrix()

    Pops the current transformation matrix off the matrix stack

  • printMatrix()

    Prints the current matrix to the Console (the text window at the bottom of Processing)

  • pushMatrix()

    Pushes the current transformation matrix onto the matrix stack

  • resetMatrix()

    Replaces the current matrix with the identity matrix

  • rotateX()

    Rotates a shape around the x-axis the amount specified by the angle parameter

  • rotateY()

    Rotates a shape around the y-axis the amount specified by the angle parameter

  • rotateZ()

    Rotates a shape around the z-axis the amount specified by the angle parameter

  • rotate()

    Rotates a shape the amount specified by the angle parameter

  • scale()

    Increases or decreases the size of a shape by expanding and contracting vertices

  • shearX()

    Shears a shape around the x-axis the amount specified by the angle parameter

  • shearY()

    Shears a shape around the y-axis the amount specified by the angle parameter

  • translate()

    Specifies an amount to displace objects within the display window

Lights Camera

Lights

Camera

  • beginCamera()

    The beginCamera() and endCamera() functions enable advanced customization of the camera space

  • camera()

    Sets the position of the camera

  • endCamera()

    The beginCamera() and endCamera() functions enable advanced customization of the camera space

  • frustum()

    Sets a perspective matrix defined through the parameters

  • ortho()

    Sets an orthographic projection and defines a parallel clipping volume

  • perspective()

    Sets a perspective projection applying foreshortening, making distant objects appear smaller than closer ones

  • printCamera()

    Prints the current camera matrix to the Console (the text window at the bottom of Processing)

  • printProjection()

    Prints the current projection matrix to the Console

Coordinates

  • modelX()

    Returns the three-dimensional X, Y, Z position in model space

  • modelY()

    Returns the three-dimensional X, Y, Z position in model space

  • modelZ()

    Returns the three-dimensional X, Y, Z position in model space

  • screenX()

    Takes a three-dimensional X, Y, Z position and returns the X value for where it will appear on a (two-dimensional) screen

  • screenY()

    Takes a three-dimensional X, Y, Z position and returns the Y value for where it will appear on a (two-dimensional) screen

  • screenZ()

    Takes a three-dimensional X, Y, Z position and returns the Z value for where it will appear on a (two-dimensional) screen

Material Properties

  • ambient()

    Sets the ambient reflectance for shapes drawn to the screen

  • emissive()

    Sets the emissive color of the material used for drawing shapes drawn to the screen

  • shininess()

    Sets the amount of gloss in the surface of shapes

  • specular()

    Sets the specular color of the materials used for shapes drawn to the screen, which sets the color of highlights

Rendering

  • PGraphics

    Main graphics and rendering context, as well as the base API implementation for processing "core"

  • blendMode()

    Blends the pixels in the display window according to a defined mode

  • clip()

    Limits the rendering to the boundaries of a rectangle defined by the parameters

  • createGraphics()

    Creates and returns a new PGraphics object of the types P2D or P3D

  • hint()

    This function is used to enable or disable special features that control how graphics are drawn

  • noClip()

    Disables the clipping previously started by the clip() function

Shaders

  • PShader

    This class encapsulates a GLSL shader program, including a vertex and a fragment shader

  • loadShader()

    Loads a shader into the PShader object

  • resetShader()

    Restores the default shaders

  • shader()

    Applies the shader specified by the parameters

Input

Mouse

  • mouseButton

    Shows which mouse button is pressed

  • mouseClicked()

    Called once after a mouse button has been pressed and then released

  • mouseDragged()

    Called once every time the mouse moves and a mouse button is pressed

  • mouseMoved()

    Called every time the mouse moves and a mouse button is not pressed

  • mousePressed

    Variable storing if a mouse button is pressed

  • mousePressed()

    Called once after every time a mouse button is pressed

  • mouseReleased()

    Called every time a mouse button is released

  • mouseWheel()

    The code within the mouseWheel() event function is run when the mouse wheel is moved

  • mouseX

    The system variable that always contains the current horizontal coordinate of the mouse

  • mouseY

    The system variable that always contains the current vertical coordinate of the mouse

  • pmouseX

    The system variable that always contains the horizontal position of the mouse in the frame previous to the current frame

  • pmouseY

    The system variable that always contains the vertical position of the mouse in the frame previous to the current frame

Keyboard

  • key

    The system variable that always contains the value of the most recent key on the keyboard that was used (either pressed or released)

  • keyCode

    Used to detect special keys such as the UP, DOWN, LEFT, RIGHT arrow keys and ALT, CONTROL, SHIFT

  • keyPressed

    The boolean system variable that is true if any key is pressed and false if no keys are pressed

  • keyPressed()

    Called once every time a key is pressed

  • keyReleased()

    Called once every time a key is released

  • keyTyped()

    Called once every time a key is pressed, but action keys such as Ctrl, Shift, and Alt are ignored

Files

  • BufferedReader

    A BufferedReader object is used to read files line-by-line as individual String objects

  • createInput()

    This is a function for advanced programmers to open a Java InputStream

  • createReader()

    Creates a BufferedReader object that can be used to read files line-by-line as individual String objects

  • launch()

    Attempts to open an application or file using your platform's launcher

  • loadBytes()

    Reads the contents of a file or url and places it in a byte array

  • loadJSONArray()

    Takes a String, parses its contents, and returns a JSONArray

  • loadJSONObject()

    Loads a JSON from the data folder or a URL, and returns a JSONObject

  • loadStrings()

    Reads the contents of a file or url and creates a String array of its individual lines

  • loadTable()

    Reads the contents of a file or URL and creates a Table object with its values

  • loadXML()

    Reads the contents of a file or URL and creates an XML object with its values

  • parseJSONArray()

    Takes a String, parses its contents, and returns a JSONArray

  • parseJSONObject()

    Takes a String, parses its contents, and returns a JSONObject

  • parseXML()

    Converts String content to an XML object

  • selectFolder()

    Opens a platform-specific file chooser dialog to select a folder

  • selectInput()

    Open a platform-specific file chooser dialog to select a file for input

Time Date

  • day()

    Returns the current day as a value from 1 - 31

  • hour()

    Returns the current hour as a value from 0 - 23

  • millis()

    Returns the number of milliseconds (thousandths of a second) since starting an applet

  • minute()

    Returns the current minute as a value from 0 - 59

  • month()

    Returns the current month as a value from 1 - 12

  • second()

    Returns the current second as a value from 0 - 59

  • year()

    Returns the current year as an integer (2003, 2004, 2005, etc)

Output

Text Area

  • printArray()

    Writes array data to the text area of the Processing environment's console.

  • print()

    Writes to the console area of the Processing environment

  • println()

    Writes to the text area of the Processing environment's console

Image

  • saveFrame()

    Saves a numbered sequence of images, one image each time the function is run

  • save()

    Saves an image from the display window

Files

  • PrintWriter

    Allows characters to print to a text-output stream

  • beginRaw()

    To create vectors from 3D data, use the beginRaw() and endRaw() commands

  • beginRecord()

    Opens a new file and all subsequent drawing functions are echoed to this file as well as the display window

  • createOutput()

    Similar to createInput(), this creates a Java OutputStream for a given filename or path

  • createWriter()

    Creates a new file in the sketch folder, and a PrintWriter object to write to it

  • endRaw()

    Complement to beginRaw(); they must always be used together

  • endRecord()

    Stops the recording process started by beginRecord() and closes the file

  • saveBytes()

    Opposite of loadBytes(), will write an entire array of bytes to a file

  • saveJSONArray()

    Writes the contents of a JSONArray object to a file

  • saveJSONObject()

    Writes the contents of a JSONObject object to a file

  • saveStream()

    Save the contents of a stream to a file in the sketch folder

  • saveStrings()

    Writes an array of strings to a file, one line per string

  • saveTable()

    Writes the contents of a Table object to a file

  • saveXML()

    Writes the contents of an XML object to a file

  • selectOutput()

    Opens a platform-specific file chooser dialog to select a file for output

Math

  • PVector

    A class to describe a two or three dimensional vector

Operators

Bitwise Operators

Calculation

  • abs()

    Calculates the absolute value (magnitude) of a number

  • ceil()

    Calculates the closest int value that is greater than or equal to the value of the parameter

  • constrain()

    Constrains a value to not exceed a maximum and minimum value

  • dist()

    Calculates the distance between two points

  • exp()

    Returns Euler's number e (2.71828...) raised to the power of the value parameter

  • floor()

    Calculates the closest int value that is less than or equal to the value of the parameter

  • lerp()

    Calculates a number between two numbers at a specific increment

  • log()

    Calculates the natural logarithm (the base-e logarithm) of a number

  • mag()

    Calculates the magnitude (or length) of a vector

  • map()

    Re-maps a number from one range to another

  • max()

    Determines the largest value in a sequence of numbers

  • min()

    Determines the smallest value in a sequence of numbers

  • norm()

    Normalizes a number from another range into a value between 0 and 1

  • pow()

    Facilitates exponential expressions

  • round()

    Calculates the integer closest to the value parameter

  • sq()

    Squares a number (multiplies a number by itself)

  • sqrt()

    Calculates the square root of a number

Trigonometry

  • acos()

    The inverse of cos(), returns the arc cosine of a value

  • asin()

    The inverse of sin(), returns the arc sine of a value

  • atan2()

    Calculates the angle (in radians) from a specified point to the coordinate origin as measured from the positive x-axis

  • atan()

    The inverse of tan(), returns the arc tangent of a value

  • cos()

    Calculates the cosine of an angle

  • degrees()

    Converts a radian measurement to its corresponding value in degrees

  • radians()

    Converts a degree measurement to its corresponding value in radians

  • sin()

    Calculates the sine of an angle

  • tan()

    Calculates the ratio of the sine and cosine of an angle

Random

  • noiseDetail()

    Adjusts the character and level of detail produced by the Perlin noise function

  • noiseSeed()

    Sets the seed value for noise()

  • noise()

    Returns the Perlin noise value at specified coordinates

  • randomGaussian()

    Returns a float from a random series of numbers having a mean of 0 and standard deviation of 1

  • randomSeed()

    Sets the seed value for random()

  • random()

    Generates random numbers

Constants

  • HALF_PI

    HALF_PI is a mathematical constant with the value 1.57079632679489661923

  • PI

    PI is a mathematical constant with the value 3.14159265358979323846

  • QUARTER_PI

    QUARTER_PI is a mathematical constant with the value 0.7853982

  • TAU

    An alias for TWO_PI

  • TWO_PI

    TWO_PI is a mathematical constant with the value 6.28318530717958647693